Facial tissue depth
There are many instances of human remains where the only item available for identification is a denuded skull. How useful it would be, to be able to replace the missing soft tissues of the face and to see what the individual looked like in life. This is, in fact, the goal of forensic facial reconstruction FFR , namely, to replace an artificially rendered version of the facial soft tissue over the unidentified skull, in such a way as to suggest the identity of the deceased. It has been suggested that the word facial reconstruction, be replaced by the term reproduction or approximation. For the purposes of this article the more widely used term, reconstruction, will be used. The chief thrust of this article is to discuss the amount and form of facial soft tissue and the processes involved in three-dimensional FFR.
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This study reports results of a facial tissue depth measurements project conducted over a two-year period on a modern sample of children and adults of both sexes and varying ages and races. The purpose of this research was to increase available tissue depth data for children and update facial tissue depth measurements for American adults. Most volunteers for this project were patients or visitors to the pediatric clinic at the Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry, in New Orleans.
This paper reports the results of a study of facial tissue depth measurement in White British children of both sexes, aged between 11 and 18 years. The purpose of this research was to increase the information available upon tissue depth data for children, primarily for use in forensic facial reconstruction. Facial tissue depths were measured at 21 anatomical points using ultrasonic echo-location. The mid-philtral, upper lip border and lower lip border points showed consistently larger tissue depths in the males than the females, and the zygomatic attachment showed consistently larger tissue depths in the females than the males. The males showed a general increase in tissue depth with an increase in age at all the mid-line facial points and the cheek points.